Every movement begins with a moment.
What Super Mario Maker’s level editor can teach us about creating learnable interfaces and encouraging quality user-generated content.
Game development is a time-consuming and costly affair. Even when iterating on an existing design, with the engine locked down, the vast content creation effort required for the desired longevity and value remains a challenge. One way around this is to enable your player community to create the content for you. After all, why spend costly time and resources churning out content when you can simply put the tools into your users’ hands?
For one, level design is quite difficult. At minimum, it requires a thorough understanding of the game’s mechanics and design principles, how to achieve flow and how to avoid edge cases that can be exploited or cause a player to get stuck. Moreover, most level editors are complex by necessity, intended for internal use by professionals with a background in programming. Simplifying these tools to make them learnable for the interested layman usually involves hiding or stripping out functionality. Even Little Big Planet, until recently the most successful console game series built on user-generated content, suffered from this issue. While an average user could put together a basic level after spending a few hours with the editor, doing anything elaborate required a degree of investment and effort only a fraction of the user base was willing to make. Conversely, when Nintendo finally threw up its hands to exclaim, “We’re sick of making Mario levels, why don’t YOU do it?” the response was enormous. Within one week of Super Mario Maker’s Japanese launch, over a million levels had been uploaded. Where its predecessors failed, the Super Mario Maker level editor succeeded spectacularly — and in a wide array of ways.
Staggering the toolset
Not allowing full access to the palette of level types and course elements from the start is one of Super Mario Maker’s more controversial design choices. After initial boot, you’re limited to the original Super Mario Bros. tile-set and mostly World 1 elements. New tools unlock every day or after you have placed a sufficient number of course elements in a level. While I can relate to the frustrations of power users (who have been quite vocal about their consternation), I am convinced that, for the average person, the limitation is beneficial. It is a way to avoid option shock and help you focus on the basics. It also poses the challenge of crafting an entertaining level in the iconic style without resorting to gimmicks. To me, the pacing felt nearly perfect. By the time I finished designing a level, the next batch of tools had unlocked, which I would then try out in the next level. After making a level a day for the first week (though not all good enough to upload), I had unlocked the full toolset and felt utterly proficient with it.
Leveraging decades of shared Mario experience
Super Mario Maker has a built-in advantage over its competitors: it’s a Mario game, the kind that we’ve been playing regularly since 1992. The tropes and machinations of the series are so well established that players don’t need to be educated on how Chain Chomps work or what a P block does. The tutorial smartly communicates only a set of ground rules and lets you discover the rest through a combination of experimentation and core knowledge. Starting out, you’re told how to place course elements, how to combine two elements by dragging one over the other and how to toggle to an alternate version of an element by “shaking” it with the stylus. Once you’ve learned that you can shake a green Koopa Troopa to change it to its more aggressive red brethren, its easy to deduce that the same logic applies to any other course element with variants. Dragging a Super Mushroom onto any character to enlarge them, attaching wings to make flying enemies or shoving anything into a Bill Blaster to create a constant barrage of it — such concepts seem intuitive because Nintendo was able to so closely match the internal logic of the editor to the gameplay logic of the platformer.
Fun interactions and feedback
If you’re a fan of the SNES classic Mario Paint, you can expect Super Mario Maker to wrap you in a fuzzy nostalgia blanket. In fact, Super Mario Maker initially started out as a new Mario Paint game, and that lineage is immediately obvious — from its animated title card to the fly-swatting mini-game. As with Mario Paint, Nintendo has again taken great care to make its menus fun. Information is chunked sensibly, transitions are elegant and playful animations abound. Easter eggs hidden throughout provide incentive for users to thoroughly explore the interface. Sound effects coinciding with certain user actions (e.g., placing a course element) are tuned to be in key with the catchy background music, creating a kind of continuous remix and a satisfying feedback loop. Interactions that occur during potentially frustrating moments are especially well thought out. For instance, if you must delete all your work and start with a fresh stage, you don’t just select “delete” from a menu; instead, you hold down a “nuke” button while a meter fills, the screen shakes, and a rocket rises from the button, flies up off the screen, and comes back down to blow your level to smithereens. That’s the degree of levity I desire when throwing away a bunch of hard work.
When you come across a particularly ingenious level, you don’t have to frustratedly wonder how it was achieved. Any published level can be downloaded by other users, who can then take it apart to make sense of whatever brilliant clockwork logic it employs. Having access to everyone else’s designs, and the ability to deconstruct them, may well be Super Mario Maker’s most powerful learning tool. There is no shame in taking inspiration from one’s peers, and I always find it enlightening to see the editor used for novel puzzles or challenges, environmental storytelling, Rube Goldberg devices or anything that’s not traditionally done in Mario. One smart safeguard against plagiarism: though you can download a copy of any level to your local drive, you can never republish that file on your account.
In teaching its users how to make Mario, Super Mario Maker also teaches the absolute necessity of disparate disciplines bolstering each other to create a harmonious user experience. Without the presentation layer, the menu layouts and interaction design would come across as merely efficient. The subtle animations and sound cues, which for most other designs would be a “nice to have,” are so much in the forefront here that they become the most memorable and pleasant aspect of the UI. Yet none of this would be enough if Nintendo hadn’t first solved the problem of how to intuitively communicate the functionality of the toolset and if it hadn’t made smart strategic decisions on how to pace its reveal. Such coherence is rarely achieved without close-knit teams, inter-discipline collaboration and a truly holistic approach.
Screenshot taken from http://www.giantbomb.com/videos/quick-look-super-mario-maker/2300-10664/
Good article. Tileset unlocking in SMB was much too slow. You should share those levels you made.
Fly Swatter game returns?!! YESSSS!
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